data on display: the cathode-ray tube, which dominated display technology for half a century, has given way to flat-panel displays. all current flat-panel display technologies involve a degree of compromise, but new concepts leaving the laboratory promise
Rhythm, fighters will need quick and easy access
With the increasing amount of data, people have higher and higher requirements for display technology.
Ask the end user what features are needed in the new display, the response may be: * high resolution * Quick Response * from sunlight to near-
Dark * light weight * strong * minimum power consumption * low cost.
Anyone who buys a new computer monitor will realize how optimistic this specification is, but the display designer is determined to meet the challenge and deliver a range of technologies that meet the most imaginable needs and ultimately see the traditional cathode-ray tube (CRT)
Into a museum exhibition
Fujitsu solid ultra-electronics with 1280x1028 pixels-
In 1995, a prototype console was created for the Navy app.
This is the first time in the year to be presented at the National Defense Exhibition, and its location allows visitors to see its minimum thickness compared to the conventional console based on the cathode
Ray tube monitor
At the time, it seemed like a sci-fi thing, but at the recent DSEi exhibition in the UK, Armada had to work hard to find an exhibitor to showcase old worksstyle CRT-based displays. The cathode-
The photoelectric tube is large in size, large in weight and high in power
Despite these shortcomings, it still has some advantages over more modern display technology.
First of all, the technology is simple and mature, so the hardware is relatively easy to manufacture and quite cheap.
The CRT has excellent resolution, fast response time, excellent color saturation and a wide dynamic range.
The earliest type of plane-screen solid-
The status display is LCD Display (LCD).
This uses an electric field to change the chemical properties of each element in the display, changing the light of that element-
This display panel is backlit and a single display element can block this light or allow it to pass through, effectively acting as an optical switch.
While the inherent technique is monochrome, filters can be used to color the output of a single element to create a completecolour image.
The driving technology used to apply control voltage to the element can be passive or active, but the active method is now the most common because it provides faster response and higher
Front of the liberation of the Congo (FLC)
The display is similar in general concept to the liquid crystal display.
High resolution, wide viewing angle, fast response.
However, they do not have grayscale capability, so they cannot be used for TV showsstyle imagery.
The earliest headup displays (Hud)
The field of vision is relatively narrow and can only be displayed (stroke)symbology.
Today\'s users want the widest view and the ability to display the gratingScan the image. The image-
The generating part of Hud is usually a cathode-
But the work of developing a tablet is in progress-
Panel devices that can match the brightness and contrast of the \"tube.
Hud\'s flying vision in the US has given Brimar and CRL Opto subcontracts to develop tablets
Finally, you can replace the panel \"light engine\" of the CRT in the Huds \".
This includes a CRL Opto high-
Single color LCD with resolution, display drive and control electronics and high
Brightness without electric backlight.
Thin Film electric light (Tfel)
The display uses materials, such as hydrogen sulfide, that emit fluorescence when applied voltage.
The Tfel display consists of a thin film luminous layer sandwiched between a transparent dielectric layer and a row-and-row electrode matrix.
A single pixel is lit by the voltage transmitted by the electronic control circuit through the intersection rows and columns.
The unit is light in weight, small in size and low in power consumption, and its level is proportional to the desired refresh rate.
The image has high contrast, high resolution and fast response, and can be viewed from a wide range of angles.
Although the contrast is only about 20:1, the image will not \"wash\" at the high ambient light level \"(
Problems with easy LCD Display).
The efficiency is quite low, and the required 75 to 200 V power level increases the cost of the display.
Tfel flat panel display technology, thanks to its ability to work in a very wide temperature range and long service life, is especially suitable for use in military applications, durability and excellent image quality at a wide viewing angle.
The latter feature allows viewing-at-a-
At a glance, make Tfels suitable for use on weapon platforms where users may only be able to take a little time to view the display.
It is the \"instant availability\" of this image that led Canadian computing devices to select a thin-film glowing display developed by Planar in 1996 for the next generation of flir system tanks that will be installed in M1A2 Abrams.
General Area Display Group of the US Air Force (Clads)
The development of a modern display programme, which was launched in 1995, was able to replace aging tube systems on aircraft, such as electronics. 3 Sentry and E-
Jstars is also the ground command and control unit.
During the period from 1996 to 1998, various potential solutions were tested, and on September 1999, Raytheon announced that it had obtained a US Air Force contract worth $29 million to supply aircraft.
Specific changes in its 21-
Inch digital reinforced display based on Texas Instruments digital micro mirror equipment (DMD)technology.
A micro-mechanical silicon chip containing thousands of tiny movable aluminum mirrors, plus electronic logic, memory, and control circuits.
The computer-controlled signal will cause the mirror of the device to move, and the pattern of light reflected from the chip will produce a high
High-quality images that can be projected, printed, or displayed.
The invention in 1987 of the device is a product of the early work of the Texas instrument on a micro-mechanical analog light modulator known as an amoeba device.
In 1989, TI was one of the four companies initially selected by the agency for advanced defense research projects projection display technology section
Define the display program.
In 1992, the company showed
System-based compliance with current resolution standards.
The contract requires delivery of up to 1071 monitors from 1999.
These will be the form, installation and functional replacement of the existing CRT workstation display.
Ministry of Defense (DOD)
It is estimated that the total demand for the package layer display may be 15,000, and the new unit can be used to produce the mod-
Kaiser Electronics is currently in contract with Boeing to provide projection digital scalable color displays for F/a-saving more than $100 million per year18E/F.
In addition, Kaiser Electronics signed a contract with Lockheed Martin air systems to provide 8x8-
Inch projection display of F-22.
Kaiser Electronics recently delivered F-to Lockheed Martin-22 program.
The device is an intelligent 8x8 inch high performance rear projection display using a reflective micro LCD device.
The company says a single optical engine, combined with a slightly modified folding optical system, can be used for displays ranging in sizes from 5 inch square meters to 32 inch diagonal lines.
The search for the display may be comparable to the quality of the CRT, which leads to a new concept that is essentially a flat version of the CRT.
Field emission display (Fed)
Composed of a rectangular matrix
Cathode field transmitter piece facing phosphorus coated transparent plate.
The space between the two elements is evacuated so that the unit is actually a flat CRT where each pixel in the image is served by its own cathode.
As their names suggest, these individual cathode do not need to be heated in order to release electrons. The array is X-
Y addressable, allowing a single cathode or a set of cathode to release electrons that accelerate toward phosphorus, which is given a positive voltage to make it the anode of the device.
As in CRT, the acceleration of the electron to the fluorescence experience leads to the fluorescence of the fluorescent body.
The FBI can produce high brightness in all color ranges, but only one-tenth to one-
Half the power of traditional LCD displays.
With the development of organic compounds, the LED concept is getting an interesting new turning point, when organic compounds spread to ultra thin films, they glow when they are subject to voltage.
The resulting organic light
Could be the breakthrough needed to create a bright, lightweight display.
The response time of Oled is very fast, which is much better than the liquid crystal display. Its brightness and current are directly linear, and it has a good gray scale-
Capacity of scale.
They only produce light as needed, so they need less power than the LCD.
At present, the display life is limited and the colors are different.
A recent report from Stanford resources pointed out that in a prototype of Kodak/Sanyo, red-
The estimated life of the transmitting element is 100,000 hours, but the corresponding figures for green and blue are only 10,000 hours and 5000 hours, respectively.
Some companies now report more than 10,000 hours of Oled display life, and in some cases more than 50,000 hours, further improvements are expected.
The life depends on the temperature, so the operating conditions must generally be kept below 60 degrees Celsius.
By the end of the decade,color Oled-
The display technology based on the display is expected to replace the active matrix liquid crystal display.
Many monitors for control purposes do not need to display images, but only alphanumeric and simple graphics.
At present, the device uses rigid panels, but the technology currently being designed to make electronic paper may bring about revolutionary changes.
In the 1980 s, Xerox developed a display technology called gyricon, which uses tiny two-color beads embedded in flexible paper.
When applying voltage to them, a single bead changes the state in a way similar to the elements in the LCD screen.
E Ink is developing a similar concept, while Nanomat has developed pixel elements that change color when exposed to electrical signals.
The image on the LCD must be refreshed about 30 times per second, but the Pixel element in the electronic paper will be two pixels
Stable, keep them on or off without refreshing, thus storing images without power on.
Although the electronic paper has not yet arrived, the US military will soon have a double
In 1999, Honeywell, Kent display, Darpa and the US Army Soldier Systems Center teamed up to develop military electronic equipmentbook (mil-e-book)
Soldiers for the future
The existing field-operated display is a power source-
Their battery packs provide only a few hours of display life. The new mil-e-
The book will be available in a few weeks, allowing soldiers on the battlefield to view maps, commands, troop movements and other documents. The mil-e-
Books use reflective gallbladder LCD (ChLCD)
The technology that Kent exhibition is developing to keep high
In the absence of an additional power supply, the resolution color image on the display screen will last for some time.
Power supply is required only when the display is updated with new information.
The reflected brightness of the display is close to 40.
It reflects the near
Infrared radiation and visible light can therefore be read under starlight conditions using night vision lenses.
Plasma briefing room and commandand-
Control facilities require large displays that can be viewed by a large number of users. Cathode-
Light tubes are not suitable for this application because their weight and volume increase dramatically with the size of the screen.
LCD is also bad.
Suitable because of the 19 inch panel (0. 48 m)
Or larger, can only be created by connecting a single smaller panel together.
In the business world, computers
Drive projection unit for creating large-
But the small command center and the command vehicle may need a flat image. Screen display.
A possible solution would be to use a plasma display panel that consists of very small fluorescent elements to form an addressable matrix.
The first example is monochrome, producing red/orange characters in a dark background.
The most recent pattern uses a single element that can glow red, green, and/or blue to create a color image, but at the expense of a complex drive system.
The matrix is relatively thick, and the pixels are usually about 1mm apart-
About five times the LCD or Fed.
So the image quality is very low. Although large-
40 inch screen display (1. 0 m)
Or larger size, poor image resolution-
High power consumption (
Several hundred watts)
, But the peak brightness is only 30-of the cathode brightness-ray tube.
LEDs are widely used as indicator lights on personal displays
Originally only red, these are to create yellow and green light, recently blue light.
Once reliable blue LEDs are available
Early examples have short life and low efficiency
Creating a complete possibilitycolour large-
Screen display based on diode array.
Create a large
Screen Display can provide high
Image quality challenges most existing technologies, but some new concepts can provide a solution.
At a conference in the UK last year, Adrian Travis of the University of Cambridge described how wedge displays create largearea images.
Thick end of light injection wedge-
The shaped glass plate bounces the wedge up, and if the angle of the wedge is correctly selected, there will be some light escaping each time it bounces.
The location of these exit points is controllable, depending on the angle of the entrance, so it can be used to create the image.
This principle can be used to make a compact image projector.
Another approach described at the same meeting involved the use of the FBI.
Printable Field transmitter developed a material consisting of a screen printable ink for conductive particles in a polymer matrix.
The technology offers 200,000 transmitters per square meter.
These may be driven by the technology that the plasma panel display manufacturer has developed.
Oled is another technology that can be manufactured using printing technology.
Cambridge Display Technology has developed light-
Luminous polymer compatible with inkjet printing.
Installed Display (HMD)
Initially serving on aircraft and helicopters used as weaponsaiming aids.
Early examples include Honeywell integrated helmet and display aiming system on AH-
64 Apache and Arsenal Zh-3YM-
1 HMD for targeting R-73 (AA-11 `Archer\')air-to-
MiG-missile. 29 Fulcrum. All next-
A generation will have HMDs.
The US Army\'s Land Warrior system may use HMD to combine the data of the wearer\'s computer with the communication subsystem to present the sensor-
Derived graphics, digital maps, and text information.
The Integrated Helmet Assembly subsystem of the soldier will also include a night vision image booster.
While some research has been done on small display devices that can be incorporated into the line of sight of rifles or other personal weapons, most integrated systems for individual soldiers being studied around the world are also expected to designate HMDs.
Only images available until recently
High quality power generation equipmentHigh resolution
The brightness display for HMD applications is CRT. One-
Inch or even half
Inch tubes are small enough and light enough for HMD applications, but like larger tubes, they require high voltage and enough power to heat the cathode.
Two techniques show the prospect of a method that displays large amounts of data in very small units.
First, the micro-display;
The other is direct retina projection.
The micro-display is high
With the help of the resolution display that the lens is watching near the eyes, a virtual image of a larger display located in the distance is created.
This image can be superimposed on the outside world through vision. through optics.
The micro-display needs to generate a large number of pixels in a small package.
In fact, the user needs at least VGA graphics (
But it\'s best to x 1080 pixels in 1920.
It is not easy to send the required number of electrical control signals to such a small array.
The most likely solution is to integrate the display-
Drive the circuit to the same substrate as the pixel generator, allowing the device to accept data continuously, and then transfer the data to a row of pixels at a time.
Small image source for head
The installation display was developed under Darpa\'s HD system and head mounted display program.
The projects evaluated the hardware, including the flat plane 640x480 active matrix electro-luminous display of the Land Warrior Project and the RAH-HMS Kopin 1280x1024 highlighted active matrix liquid crystal display
66 Comanche helicopter
The latter is a particularly demanding requirement with a resolution of 1280x1024, 1650
The brightness of the lumens, the contrast is 80: 1.
With funding from the US Air Force\'s phase III Small Business Innovation Research, eMagin Corporation is developing high
Resolution active matrix organic LEDs (Amoled)
Miniature display for military helmet
The company is developing a 1280x1024 capable of delivering high brightness and energy efficiency.
At the social information exhibition (Sid)
At the press conference on May 1999, eMagin announced 0. 77-inch (2 cm)microdisplay. This had 1.
3 million pixels and real time video showing 256 gray shadows.
The power consumption is less than 400 mW, and the brightness of the display screen is 200 cd/m2.
The retina projection in the retina projection system, the image is directly \"drawn\" to the retina of the user\'s eye.
The mobile mirror system controls the output of the modulated light source through a grating-
Scan mode to create an image that looks about the length of the arm.
Virtual Retina Display (VRD)
It was invented in 1991 in the human-machine interface technology laboratory at the University of Washington. Microvision (
Microvision BAE systems now)
Exclusive license to commercialize VRD technology.
So far, the company has delivered 1999 prototypes, mainly for defense and aerospace customers.
Potential military applications include analog displays, cockpit displays, and wearable displays.
The light source used in VRD hardware is either a super light source
Whether it\'s a bright Led or a laser, the choice of any particular application depends on whether the user needs to see an image superimposed in the real world.
Direct injection of light into the eyes can cause safety problems, but Microvision has accepted advice from authorities such as Dr. David L.
S. Army (
Lead author of ANSI standard for laser safety use)
Professor St. Marshall
Thomas Hospital in London
The company said the experts concluded that the level of light used for VRD was lower than 100 of acceptable retinal exposure.
Another way to create a virtual display is the Linus system developed by Celsius Tech Electronics in Sweden.
This projection to the user constitutes a single line of the grating-scanned image.
The scan is only done on the horizontal plane, so a single line is projected one by one at the same position.
The user is wearing a special pair of glasses, which will make the continuous lines of the picture a pair
Increase the number so that a complete image can be created.
For monochrome systems, line-display unit (LDU)
The projection consists of a line of pixels.
If color is required, this line will consist of three lines of pixels.
The company has tested the cathode.
Light tube and Led-
The display tomorrow will use depth as a parameter.
New Zealand company Deep Video Imaging is already working on this, and the company presents a color display consisting of two LCD panels that are very short distance apart in order to present two aircraft to the operator.
In the longer-
Some monitors turn into three. dimensional.
Prototypes such as the electronic sand table have proven this, and it constitutes the core feature of the virtual world built by the Bedford Mitre Visualization Laboratory in Massachusetts.
The surface of the table shows the terrain in three dimensions, showing the contours of the land, natural features, buildings, vehicles, and even changing weather conditions.
Objects above the terrain, such as aircraft, appear above the surface of the table.
If the radar is activated in the modeling area, its coverage can be displayed as a dome, thus designing aircraft routes that avoid detection.
All in all * \"solid-
The national display has largely replaced the conventional but bulky cathode.
The new technology can replace the current-popular liquid-
Crystal and luminous display of \"*\" organic lightLEDs (Oled)
By the end of the decade, the display may dominate the market
If you can solve the service life problem of the \"*\" virtual display-
In some cases, it is projected directly into the operator\'s eyes.
Small and compact hardware can create the illusion of traditional large screens.